Single Sport vs. Cross-Training
Why DO we Cross-Train?
The search for mastery brings with it the question of specificity. If you are trying to master a particular sport, should you focus on and practice that sport exclusively? Or might cross-training, and using tools from outside that sport, benefit you in some way? Certainly, there is a lot to argue in favor of practicing only your sport in order to get better at it. From a physiological standpoint, there is even more to argue for multi-disciplinary training.
Most simply, cross-training allows you more tools to accomplish the job. And isn’t it always better to have a few possible solutions rather than just one?
Having more tools allows you to avoid repetitive movements, to change neuromuscular patterns quicker. Let me offer a real life example.
Many horses have a dominant side, meaning they lean with their bodies or drift towards that direction. Turning the horse in this direction, or trying to ride around a circle, will feel like being on a motorcycle that is tipped towards the ground. A horse with this kind of crookedness in his body alignment can be rough to canter, difficult to bend, and unresponsive to your leg cues.
When a horse has a side- dominance, the respective forelimb becomes not only stronger but also “stuck” to the body because of fascia adhesions and tighter muscles. The scapula loses its full range of motion to rotate back each stride. To use analogy, it is like one of your shoulders being glued in a rolled forward position. In a simplified description, the shoulder is frozen in place. To correct this, our job is to help the scapula rotate back fully each stride in order to move with more grace and fluidity.
In dressage, we usually attempt to accomplish this by riding exercises like circles, shoulder fore, or shoulder-in. These tools work by encouraging the shoulder that is positioned on the inside of the turn to draw upwards and back as the horse curves his body. As with any exercise, though, many horses quickly become clever about modifying their body position slightly in order to NOT draw the shoulder up and back. Sometimes they will make their necks rigid and push their jaw/head to one side or they might make other small changes that negate the outcome we are trying to reach: change their speed, hold their breath, shift their hips off the line of travel.
To use another human analogy, these occurrences are the same as when I change my form ever so slightly in order to make doing push-ups a lot easier. When I do this, I end up going through the motions of a push-up but without the positive result. A perfectly good exercise fails to reach the intended goal because of minor interference.
Luckily we can eliminate this interference through cross-training and utilizing a collection of varied exercises instead of drilling the same unsuccessful routine day after day. I consider this working smarter, not harder. In the above example of the crooked horse, an excellent complimentary exercise is riding down hills. The balance needed to negotiate this terrain necessitates good scapula rotation for the horse. The horse has to equalize the load and effort of each forelimb. Gradually, asymmetrical movement patterns become symmetrical. Crooked horses almost always are able to ride better circles in the arena after spending some time riding down hills. This is one example of the value in using multiple tools to resolve a challenge.
In closing, I offer the words of Dr. Gerd Heuschmann. “An excellent dressage horse moves safely through the countryside and willingly jumps obstacles of every sort.” Let us keep this goal of a well-rounded, mentally composed athlete at the core of our training, and let’s allow good old fashioned cross-training to be an integral part.
The Sandwich Lope
The Sandwich Lope
When Western Dressage first established itself, we instructors struggled to describe the requirements of a “working lope” clearly enough for students. We wanted to be sure to differentiate it from the stilted gaits seen in the Western Pleasure discipline, and yet it was also not the animated jumping-across-the-ground canter of the traditional dressage world.
It should have springiness and energy, we told students, but not excessive speed. The horse should be adequately on the bit and lifting his back but maintaining the obedience and calmness seen in reining horses.
So, what exactly might that feel like? In the past year, hopefully without disparaging my classical dressage roots by foregoing high falutin’ descriptions, I have landed on a darn useful description.
When trail riding her often spirited Andalusian, a former student of mine used to praise the moments when cantering along a ridgeline she felt like everything was so smooth and calm and rhythmic that she could eat her lunch in stride.
I began to think of this as the sandwich test. If you and your horse were balanced and rhythmic enough to proceed with the reins in one hand while the other brought a sandwich to your mouth, you had a working lope. You should feel that you are decidedly traveling over the ground rather than grinding along and the horse should carry you on a softly engaged back that gives you a smooth enough ride to savor your sandwich.
Some horses are gifted with a balanced lope from the start. In my experience, though, most are not this naturally blessed, and the rider must invest a certain amount of effort to make the gait what we desire. Below are some of my tips for doing so, because as you have read in previous postings, I am a huge advocate of ample time spent cantering. It does wonderful things for the horse’s body. And while those wonders are happening, I suggest you think about your favorite kind of sandwich to put it all to the test.
Tips for improving the canter:
- Don’t overlook the effectiveness of a two-seat position. If your horse has a hurried or bone-rattling canter, don’t try to force yourself in to an elegant dressage position; help him out by riding in a lighter two-point position until he learns to canter with a lifted back and only then adopt a deeper seat.
- Don’t get stuck on the circle. As soon as you’re able, intersperse circles (or half-circles) and straight lines. This progresses a horse’s balance much quicker and helps him achieve self-carriage.
- The horse needs to breathe. For horses that hold their breath in the canter, the gait will always be rigid and hard to ride. If you can feel the horse holding his breath, or you hear him grunting instead of exhaling on the downbeat, ask him to work harder for 30 seconds and then stop completely and give him a loose rein to offer him a chance to let out his air. Many horses will at this point sigh or blow through their noses. If not, gather the reins and go back immediately to cantering for another 30 second bout and repeat.
- If your horse has a sluggish lope/canter, use cavalletti in your daily routines to create more “jump” in the stride. Place single poles on the ground spaced randomly around your arena.
- Don’t assume that if YOU have anxiety about the canter your horse also does. Likewise, do not assume without reliable data that the canter is more difficult for your horse than other gaits. Using a heart rate monitor can tell you just how ‘hard’ he finds the canter or not.