Training by Time or Feel?

Horse training happens most often through non-quantifiable skills, relying instead on an artistic balance of feel, observation, emotional equilibrium, and a dose of intuition. It tends not to go so well when we try to apply prescriptive formulas. And yet I wish to argue in favor of at least one plain old tool that is neither touchy nor feely: your watch.

Early on, the words of legendary horseman Nuno Oliveira made an impression on me. He admonished riders who looked at the clock for any kind of guidance when schooling their horses. Nothing about the clock would make them better riders, he said. Riders needed to throw away their watches and ride strictly by responding to their horses’ needs in every moment until arriving, through keen sensitivity, at what felt like a natural terminus of the lesson.

dressage clinic

Let me first state that I love this idea. And then let me quickly acknowledge that we humans are often not capable of fully adopting it. Most of us on any given day are a little distracted, fatigued, unfocused, annoyed by weather, or maybe even bored. So, while I agree that most good training happens through a kind of symbiosis, I also advocate strongly for using a watch.

 

 

Specifically, there are three necessary instances when you should consult your watch during a lesson. The rest of your ride will be spent feeling and responding to your horse, but in the following three instanced you should look at the clock.

spanish walk

The Warm-Up

Every horse, regardless of age, requires at least 10 minutes of continuous walking at the beginning of any session to achieve lubrication of his joints. Until then, the joint fluid is thick. As the joint moves, it gradually thins out and warms up this fluid, dispersing it around the joint capsule so it can cushion the cartilage and bones as needed. It takes 10 minutes or more for this to happen. Until then, sustained action of the limbs/joints causes friction on the cartilage.

Depending on your mindset any given day, 10 minutes might seem like a flash or it might seem like an impossibly long period of time. But the point is that most of us are very inaccurate estimators of that time passing. When I consult my watch each day to be sure I have walked the full 10 minutes, it keeps me accurate and consistent. It guarantees I am setting my horses’ joints up for the healthiest possible future.

During an exercise

As an author of several exercise books for horses, I am obviously a fan of using routines that strategically condition a horse’s body. These might include cavalletti patterns, speed drills, workouts on terrain. For exercises to be their MOST beneficial, though, they need to be performed for the prescribed amount of time. As the horse adapts to them, the rider needs to increase the time spent doing them by measurable increments. This means noting how much time you perform each exercise.

For instance, I might have a rider practice trot-canter-trot transitions for three minutes (which is a good amount of time to target the back muscles, some cardio effort, and coordination improvements), and then the rider will take a short break for about 30 seconds. If the exercise is not going smoothly, riders might be tempted to continue drilling it. In their pursuit of perfection, riders can sustain exercises long past their helpful duration. Nerve signals dull, fewer muscle fibers are recruited, tension builds in the nerve endings. Nothing is gained by continuing on in this state. This is where your watch comes in. If you stick to the planned time intervals for the exercise, regardless whether the results match your aesthetic goals, you will be rewarded and, more importantly, so will your horse.

trail riding

Session Duration

 Athletes require a diversity of stimulus, meaning they cannot make gains by working at the same intensity level every day. A simple formula I encourage riders to follow is to exercise horses EASY one day, MODERATE the following day, and HARD the next day. On the fourth day, the sequence begins anew with an easy day, then moderate, then hard. Remember here that you can adjust the difficulty level by increasing either duration or intensity of the workout, not both. For instance, to adjust duration: on your EASY day you ride for 30 minutes, on your moderate day ride for 45-minutes, and one your hard day ride for 60- to 90-minutes.

Alternatively, you could ride every day for the same duration but modulate the difficulty levels by using harder exercises. Tracking your workout times with your watch ensures you stay within these parameters.

In summary, using a watch does not overrule your chance to adapt to your horse’s needs from moment to moment, nor does it need to steal any of the artistry or intuition that plays a part in training. Instead, it balances those elements with care for his physiology that requires particular windows of time.

Are you Riding the Head and Neck?

The Head and Neck Will Take Care of Itself

Somewhere along the path of their learning journeys, many riders including myself became conditioned to constantly observe and correct the horse’s head and neck position. We were taught that if the horse’s head/neck was in a desirable frame it meant everything about our ride was going well. This led to over-prioritizing the front end of the horse, often at the expense of addressing all the other critical components of a horse’s body mechanics. Without realizing it, we spent the ride fidgeting with the bit above all else.

When I first rode with trainers who thankfully steered me on a different path, they spent a lot of time reminding me to lengthen the reins. Stop playing around with the bit. Just forget for a moment about the head and neck. Huh? Forget about the factor by which we measured our session’s success?? Wasn’t that like copping out from our goal? “The head and neck will take care of itself,” Manolo Mendez used to plead with me, reminding me to focus on everything else. And he was absolutely right every time.

 

As I have experienced over and over, a horse’s head/neck will adopt the ideal position as I help the horse bend and align his ribcage, travel with steady rhythm and symmetry, and relax emotionally. At first this can seem inexplicable; it’s almost too easy. Without constant fiddling with the reins or encountering resistance, we end up at our goal. In other words, we ride the horse from back to front, as the classical masters taught repeatedly.

A brief consideration of the horse’s muscles explains why the head and neck will take care of themselves. In order for him to stabilize his neck posture, the horse must relax and tone the interconnected muscles in his trunk and along his spine. The neck muscles do not work in isolation. They can support postures only when the groups that attach to them make it possible. For instance, if the trunk muscles are completely slack or hyper-tensioned the neck muscles on the end of that chain cannot perform correct contractions independently.

The more a rider fiddles with the reins the more rigid these muscles become, which makes them unstable. This creates a vicious cycle with the rider tempted to niggle the reins even more to get the head and neck right. The solution is not in the neck; it is in the body. We must fix the body first and the head placement will result automatically.

Trusting this process requires gumption, though, and it can be easier to succumb to the expectations of those watching us. Letting the BODY take care of the HEAD requires letting things get a little messy. The picture will not be one of a horse that is ready for the show ring but one of navigating his imbalances to find a good, sustainable change. Things will look, necessarily, like a work in progress. And that is okay. In fact, it’s better than okay. You might be in this process for 10 minutes, 10 days, or sometimes 10 months. Take a deep breath and relax. You might as well enjoy the process because there is no way around it: the only way to improve a horse’s mechanics is through his whole body not just his neck.

 

 

Mystery Lameness?: exploring rein lameness

I call it the lameness that is not really lameness. Sometimes, a horse develops an unexplainable hitch in his movement that leads to much head scratching from vets who, after an array of diagnostics, find no clear answers. The horse is described as being “not quite right,” but beyond that, there is no reason or treatment.

This mystery lameness that produces an inconsistent limp during one or more gaits is often what we call “Rein Lameness.” It is a disrupted gait pattern owing to muscular tension or imbalances that have reached a point of negatively affecting motion through the spine. The term ‘rein lameness’ originated from the frequent occurrence of horses made sore from riders with too much rein pressure. It does not, however, only originate from tight reins. In fact, I observe it most often in recreational riders’ horses ridden on loose or inconsistent rein contact.

The following is a simplified description of the development of this condition. In good healthy movement, the horse’s torso channels energy forward from the hind legs. It both creates and stabilizes the force of the hind limbs swinging forward each stride. Tension in the back or abdominals disrupts the synergy needed between these two muscle groups in order to play this role. The disruption in their interplay due to this tension and imbalance causes the horse to short-stride with one hind leg. This causes his trot rhythm to be noticeably uneven, or it may cause an actual limp. While it can sometimes be observed in other gaits, rein lameness is usually most notable when trotting.

Rein lame horses rarely show gait patterns that are explained through the typical diagnostic veterinary exam. They can be intermittent, or the soreness might appear in the front limbs one day but the hind limbs the following day. Sometimes they appear sound on the longe line but start limping when a rider gets on.

In the past year, I have become increasingly vocal about drawing riders’ attention to the fact that muscle tension patterns can indeed be the source of ‘lameness.’ Initially, this can sound too simplistic; riders assume that something on their horse must be broken, pulled, or otherwise very wrong if the horse is moving “not quite right.” But let’s stop and think about this.

To make a human comparison, consider how altered your own gait becomes following even a mild exertion. If you have ever used your body in an asymmetrical fashion (worn shoes with uneven soles, for example, or sat in a twisted position on an airplane), you have experienced a mild lameness without breaking or tearing anything. In order to resolve your disrupted gait, you must loosen up your muscles and rid them of the tension that is causing the limp. These occurrences are quite frequent over the course of our lives. For many horses, it is the same.

Of course, plenty of horses can be exercised in all manner of incorrect postures and states of tension, and yet they do not develop rein lameness. Others, however, are very susceptible. In my own experience, I believe some horses are just naturally more negatively affected by muscle tension and imbalance. Perhaps it is because of a less than ideal conformation or metabolism, or a delicate constitution. The good news is that despite having a slight limp in their gait, many rein lame horses are not in pain. Remember, the limp comes from a mechanical glitch, not necessarily from a glaring soreness

The answer that many vets do not provide is that the problem must be fixed with good, correct gymnastic exercise. The horse must be ridden in a basic dressage balance and required to stabilize his core for short, rhythmic bouts of exercise.

Resting a rein lame horse does not usually resolve the problem. Chances are high that once he is put back in a training routine the underlying gait patterns will show up again after a week or two. In order to resolve the problem, the horse must be exercised with his body in an ideal balance and engagement. On several occasions, I have seen the disrupted gait pattern disappear immediately once a skilled rider gets on and asks the horse to carry his body with correct posture. Other times, it might take a day or two, but it rarely takes longer than one week.

It is too tempting for modern riders to think they can resolve any abnormality in their horse’s movement with an injection or medicines or costly layups. My plea is to do our horses well by treating dysfunctional movement with a protocol of good, functional movement. This should be our first plan before taking more drastic actions.

 

** If you would like to read and learn more about rein lameness, I recommend Dr. Gerd Heuschmann’s book “Balancing Act.” It contains a very informative section about this disorder.

Help, my Horse is Stumbling!

Help, my Horse is Stumbling!

The most obvious place to look when a horse begins to stumble regularly is his feet because they are after all what he is tripping over, right? While he might be stubbing them, his toes are infrequently the source of this problem. In fact, a tripping problem that shows up acutely often has nothing to do with his feet. Before you call your farrier, rule out faulty mechanics in the rest of the body.

cavalletti

Tripping and stumbling often develops from poor movement patterns that restrict the front limbs, progressing sometimes to the extent that a horse will fall all the way to his knees. Riding a horse that is scrambling like this can be unnerving, and it also causes a fair bit of worry for owners. They want to know what is going wrong. Why is their horse suddenly tripping and falling?

It is natural to look at the horse’s front end for blame. But I have more often found the problem in these horses to be in the HIND end. When a horse stiffens through his lower back during motion, it pushes his stifle joints out behind him, essentially blocking the hind legs from swinging forward each stride. In the absence of flexion in his pelvis and hind limb joints, the horse’s spine becomes like a rigid piston that shoves motion forward on to the forelimbs. Overburdened, these limbs lose their smoothness of movement. The result? A horse will catch his toe instead of rolling over smoothly to the next stride. Plus, the hind legs are no longer participating to catch his balance.

horse biomechanics

Until the lower back and hindquarter stiffness is resolved, the horse is likely to continue tripping. A deeper problem arises once he has tripped enough times to not be worried about it anymore. Once this occurs, he no longer hurries to get his balance. He submits to a persistent lack of coordination. The primary nerves that generate forelimb movement gradually deactivate, the horse’s whole movement pattern alters. Smoothness of movement begins to disappear.

When caught early, many tripping problems can be corrected. The most beneficial place to begin your inspection is the horse’s hind-end, unless there is a clear reason to suspect the feet as the primary problem such as the case of a new and dramatically different hoof trim. Assess the following: dorsal flexion and overall state of the back muscles (are they normal temperature and pliable? Or are they ropey, hot, tense?), stifle flexion and perceived comfort, hamstring tension. Studying your horse’s natural standing posture will factor in your inspection of these as will your hands-on touch. Once you locate what you suspect as the source of restriction, you can begin to treat it. Generally, I recommend a Masterson Method practitioner but other good body-workers can also help.

Once the body-work therapies are administered, I have found certain corrective exercises to be especially beneficial. These include: Long and Low Transitions (Ex. # 27); Figure-Eight bars (Ex. #18); Lateral Pelvic Flexion (Ex. #31); Giravolta (Ex. #46). In addition to a good amount of backing the horse up daily, these exercises will help restore equilibrium between forehand and hindquarters, which will help you on your way to overcoming a stumbling issue that seems to show up out of nowhere.

As you work through these corrective exercises and body therapies for a focused two-week period, avoid riding at speed or on hard surfaces. Both increase the likelihood for tripping.

Round Pens: training for good posture…or bad?

Believe me when I tell you that I love freedom as much as anyone. I love trimming away boundaries, living widely in each moment. And, yes, I love to watch a beautiful horse running free across a meadow with his legs surging and his expression content. That, to me, is a wonderful sight. On the other hand, a horse careening around a round pen with his neck twisted sideways and his body misaligned disgruntles me.

The reason it disgruntles me is that this practice forms—and strengthens—poor movement mechanics that can have pretty significant consequences. Primarily, when a horse travels around the round pen with his head turned slightly to the outside of the circle, he ends up catching his balance every stride by planting his inside foreleg harder. This tightens and strengthens his shoulder girdle on that side, embeds crookedness in addition to limited range of motion in the scapula.

When a horse has spent a fair amount of time in this incorrect balance, a few of the results can include: chronically cross-cantering, balky behavior under saddle, stiffness and lack of responsiveness to the rider’s leg cues when ridden. The problem is that the undesirably tight scapula muscles contributing to these problems have been made stronger by the round pen work.

I absolutely believe that round pen work has a valuable place in every horse’s training life. Much of the value comes from body alignment. The round pen is not a place to chase around a loose horse while ingraining poor habits. Unless you can 100-percent affirm that your horse’s ENTIRE spine (head to tail) follows the curve of the circle prescribed by your round pen, then you are far better off to have a line attached to his halter/cavesson/bridle.

Any exercise undertaken without a complete inwards arc of the horse’s spine to match his line of travel creates postural imbalances that become stronger each session. These imbalances are manmade and easily avoided.

Somewhere along the way, many of us have become besotted with liberty work, or exercising the horse without any reins, longe lines, etc. Liberty work IS a delightful concept, but it often comes with irony. The irony appears when students wish to change a particular movement pattern (i.e. fix a canter lead, solve a persistent crookedness) without realizing that their liberty work has contributed greatly to the problem they wish to resolve.

When it comes with the outcome of developing comfortable and functional posture for your horse, attaching a line is a gift we can offer him. It allows you to guide the horse to correct posture inside the round pen, enabling his inside scapula to rotate upwards and back each stride, which in turn allows his topline to lift and swing.

Sure, there are a small percentage of horses with fine training and balance that are able to work at liberty in a round pen while maintaining correct posture and bend. In these wonderful cases, there may be no need whatsoever to have the horse on a line. But let’s not be overly generous in our self-assessments. Far fewer of us are in this camp than we might wish to accept. A closer look at most round pens reveals the horse’s head turned slightly outside the circle, and to that I say put on a line. Allow your horse to experience his freedom in other ways, but not at the expense of solidifying poor balance.